Effect of ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruit on serum lipid profile in Wistar rats
Background: Xylopia aethiopica fruit (African guinea pepper) produced mainly in the tropical region of Ghana, Cameroon and Nigeria, is traditionally used as a mixed spice, condiment and for other therapeutic reasons. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying dosages of ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruit on serum lipid levels in male and female rats.
Methods: Male rats (n = 24) and female rats (n = 24) weighing between 180g – 280g were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. The control group was divided into two sets (A and B) of 6 male and 6 female rats each and were given normal rat diet and water throughout the study while the experimental group was divided into three sub-groups of two sets each (C1 and C2, D1 and D2, E1 and E2), consisting of 6 male and 6 female rats per subgroup.They were given normal rat diet, water and the different dosages (30, 100 and 300mg/kg) of the fruit extract respectively for 28 days. 24 hours after the last doses were administered, all the rats were anaesthetized with chloroform. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture into plain tubes, centrifuged and the plasma was used for the various serum lipid estimation.
Results: From this study, a statistically significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed in all the weight of the male and female rats at the 4th week when 300mg/kg body weight of the fruit was administered. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in the serum Total-Cholesterol level and Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol level was observe in all male and female rats when 30,100 and 300mg/kg of fruit extract was administered. Also a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the serum triglycerides level in both male (C1,D1 and E1) and female rats (D2 and E2) were observed. A significant increase (P<0.05) in serum High Density LipoproteinCholesterol (HDL-C) level in both male (D2 and E2) and in females (D2) were also observed when compared to control group.
Conclusion: The results obtained in this study, suggests that, ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopia fruit may possess hypocholesterolemic properties.
Keywords: Serum Lipid level, Xylopia aethiopica fruit.