Examination of Vitamin and Amino Acid Profiles of Gmelina (Gmelina Arborea) Fruit and Fruit Pulp
The study examined the vitamin and amino acid profiles of Unripe Gmelina Whole Fruit (UGWF), Ripe Gmelina Whole Fruit (RGWF) and Ripe Gmelina Fruit Pulp (RGFP). The combined riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, ascorbic acid, vitamins A and E of all the samples ranged from 0.09-0.30 mg/100g, 0.22-0.88 mg/100g, 0.12-0.64 mg/100g, 5.75-22.88 mg/100g, 4.60-13.60 IU/100g and 0.0-6.09 mg/100g, respectively. They were poor in all the vitamins except the vitamin E content of RGWF. The total essential amino acid (TEAA), percentage total non essential amino acid (%TEAA), total semi essential amino acid (TSEAA), percentage total semi essential amino acid (%TSEAA), total non essential amino acid (TNEAA) and percentage total non essential amino acid(%TNEAA) ranged from 13.28-23.77 g/100g protein, 31.43-40.75%, 3.79-5.11 g/100g protein, 8.92-8.97%, 25.18-29.45 g/100g protein and 50.49-59.60%, respectively. The ingredients were high in %TEAA, valine (1.63-3.66 g/100g protein), isoleucine (1.90-3.76 g/100g protein) but low in TEAA, TSEAA, %TSEAA, TNEAA and %TNEAA, phenylalanine (1.61-2.70 g/100g protein), lysine(2.09-2.63 g/100g protein), leucine (2.03-4.72 g/100g protein), threonine (1.72-2.50 g/100g protein), methionine (0.36-0.70 g/100g protein), cystine (0.66-0.80 g/100g protein), tyrosine (1.28-2.30 g/100g protein), histidine (1.07-1.61 g/100g protein), arginine (2.72-3.50 g/100g protein), aspartic acid (3.65-7.80 g/100g protein), serine (2.05-3.10 g/100g protein), glutamic acid (10.16-13.63 g/100g protein), proline (1.91-2.34 g/100g protein), glycine (2.14-3.25 g/100g protein) and alanine (1.80-2.80 g/100g protein). RGFP had the highest (p<0.05) value for all the amino acids except glutamic acid. The use of gmelina fruit in monogastric feeding may require supplementation with other sources rich in the deficient vitamins and essential amino acids.
Key words: Amino acid, vitamin, gmelina, fruit, pulp, livestock, feed.