Comparative analysis of the profitability of rice production systems in Kwara State, Nigeria

  • W.O. Oloyede
  • A. Muhammad-Lawal
  • K.B. Amolegbe
  • I.L. Olaghere
  • I.A. Joseph
Keywords: Production systems, Profitability, Determinants, Gross margin, Upland Rice, Lowland Rice


This study describes the socioeconomic characteristics of rice farmers, identifies the production system used by the farmers, compares the profitability of rice production systems, identifies the factors influencing the choice of production systems among the farmers as well as the constraints to rice production systems. A three-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 120 rice farmers on whom a set structured questionnaire was administered. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression model. Results show that 48.3%, 35% and 16.7% of the farmers cultivate rice using the upland, lowland and the combined production systems respectively. The findings also reveal variability in yield, profit and income across the rice production systems. The gross margins for lowland, upland and combined rice production systems were N65,735.73, N67,900.89 and N78,015.57 per hectare respectively. The factors that influenced the choice of upland production system relative to combined production system were age, household size, farming years and extension visits while the factors that influenced the choice for combined rice production system relative to lowland rice production system was income. Inadequate finance to purchase inputs, problem of pests and diseases, and unfavorable climatic conditions are the constraints faced by rice farmers in the upland, lowland and combined production systems. The combined production systems had the highest return per hectare. Therefore, the study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to choose the combined rice production system for optimum profitability of rice production.


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eISSN: 1117-9996