Assessment of antibacterial activity of crude leaf and root extracts of Cassia alata against Neisseria gonorrhea.
Background: Gonorrhea is a major sexually transmitted disease worldwide and for its control, effective treatment is essential. However as more strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae continuously develop resistance to several drugs, this strategy obliges scientists to discover newer effective drugs.
Objectives: To ascertain whether crude leaf and root extracts of Cassia alata (Caesalpiniaceae) have antimicrobial activity against clinically resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. To determine and compare the MICs of their ether and methanol extracts.
Materials and methods: Ether and methanol extracts were prepared from the plant parts. 12-375mg/ml of serially diluted ether extracts in DMSO and methanol extracts in water were tested using agar-well diffusion method against Neisseria gonorrhea clinical isolate cultured on MTM agar. MICs were determined from corresponding concentration-response curves. Ceftriaxone was used as positive control, whereas DMSO and water as negative controls.
Results: All the crude extracts showed concentration-dependent Neisseria gonorrhea inhibition. Ether extracts for both leaves and roots gave lower MICs compared to those of methanol. Ether root extract showed the highest potency.
Conclusions: Both the leaf and the root of Cassia alata plant have activity against clinically resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae; the root having the higher activity. Lipophilic solvent, ether, give more potent antigonorrhoeal extracts. As expected Cassia alata plant in Central Uganda also has antibacterial activity.
Key words: Cassia alata, Extracts, MIC, Neisseria gonorrhea, Resistance, Treatment