The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose and lipid profile of undergraduate students under examination stress.
Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health.
Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile during examination stress.
Methods: Two hundred and eight (208) apparently-healthy undergraduate students (aged, 24 ± 6 years) were involved in the study. Exactly 5 mls of venous blood was collected from each subject 1-3 hours before a major examination. A second assessment was done on the same students 3-4 weeks before any examination (control samples). Cortisol and adrenaline were assayed using ELISA techniques, FBG was assayed using enzymatic method while lipid parameters were assayed using standard enzymatic- spectrophotometric methods.
Results: There was statistically significant increase in serum cortisol, adrenaline, Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in students under examination stress compared to the non examination period (p=0.001, 0.013, 0.0001, 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). FBG showed no significant increase. There was also significant positive correlation (r=0.297, p=0.032) between serum cortisol and TC/HDL ratio (cardiac risk factor) before examination stress but not during the stress period.
Conclusions: Significant positive correlation was observed between cortisol and TC/HDL ratio before examination stress.
Key words: academic examination, stressors, cortisol, lipid profile
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.