Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African patients on maintenance haemodialysis
Background and objective: Despite the high mortality and morbidity associated with abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism in haemodialysis patients, there is limited data on the pattern of mineral bone disorder in African CKD population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mineral bone disease by evaluating biochemical parameters in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD).
Methods: We evaluated the serum/plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), corrected calcium, phosphate, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and 25 –OH vitamin D levels of two hundred and seven patients undergoing MHD at two dialysis centers in Johannesburg.
Results: The MHD patients (133 men, 74 women) had a mean age of 54.5±15.6 years with a median dialysis vintage of 24 months (IQR, 12-48) and a mean kt/V of 1.45±0.28. The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (iPTH >150 pg/ml), hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia and 25-OH vitamin D deficiency (<30 ng/ml) was 73.4%, 57.0%, 20.3% and 80.7 % respectively. The combination of markers of bone turnover (iPTH >150pg/ml and TALP> 112 U/L) suggestive of high turnover bone disease, was present in 47.3 % of the study population. In multiple-logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for developing hyperparathyroidism with hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were 5.32 (95% CI 1.10 - 25.9, P = 0.03) and 3.06(95 % CI 1.15 - 8.10, P=0.02) respectively. Ninety eight (47.3%) of the MHD patients had iPTH within the recommended kidney disease improving global outcome (KDIGO) guidelines.
Conclusion: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and 25–OH vitamin D deficiency were common in our haemodialysis patients. Hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were strong predictors for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Keywords: Biochemical markers, guidelines, mineral bone disorder, haemodialysis