Predictors of esophageal candidiasis among patients attending endoscopy unit in a tertiary hospital, Tanzania: a retrospective cross-sectional study
Background: Esophageal candidiasis is a common disease among patients with impaired cell mediated immunity. In the current study, we report esophageal candidiasis among patients with various co-morbidities attending the endoscopic unit at the Bugando Medical Centre.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from June to September 2015. All data of the patients who attended the endoscopic unit between 2009 and 2014 were retrieved and analyzed.
Results: A total of 622 patients who underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were analyzed. A slight majority 334/622(53.7%) of patients were female. Out of 622 patients; 35(5.6%) had esophageal candidiasis. Decrease in age (OR 1.1, 95%CI; 1.0-1.1), female sex (OR 3.8, 95%CI; 1.1-13.1), drinking alcohol (OR 17.1, 95%CI; 4.9-58.9), smoking (OR 8.3, 95%CI; 1.7-41.0), antibiotic use (OR 5.7, 95%CI; 2.0-16.4), positive HIV status (OR 10.3, 95%CI; 4.6-6.0) and presence of peptic ulcer disease (OR 13.2, 95%CI; 3.5-49.0) independently predicted esophageal candidiasis.
Conclusion: Patients with a history of drinking alcohol, smoking, use of antibiotics and those with chronic diseases such as peptic ulcers were at high risk of developing esophageal candidiasis. Further studies are needed to identify Candida spp. and their anti-fungal susceptibility for proper management of esophageal candidiasis in HIV and non-HIV individuals.
Keywords: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, esophageal candidiasis.