How do Spondias mombin L (Anacardiaceae) leaves extract increase uterine smooth muscle contractions to facilitate child birth in parturient women?
Background: Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) leaves were used in Togolese folk to treat dystocia, expel placenta and manage post-partum hemorrhage during child birth.
Objectives: This study aimed to establish how the extract of S. mombin leaves increase uterine smooth muscle contractions relevant to its traditional use to facilitate child birth.
Methods: Tests were performed on uterus muscle strips from Sprague-Dawley rats. Central portion of uterine horns were dissected, cleaned of surrounding fat and loose connective tissue, and cut longitudinally into strips which were placed in the organ bath for isometric tension record in presence of different substances.
Results: S. mombin leaves extract increased uterine spontaneous contractions. This effect was reduced by indomethacin (2 x 10-6 M), yohimbine (2 x 10-6 M) and 2- aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (5 x 10-5 M), but not by atropine (3.45 x 10-8 M) and cholesterol (2.5 mg/ml).
Conclusion: The pharmacological justification for the traditional use of S. mombin leaves to treat dystocia and expel placenta was that its hydro-ethanolic extract induced prostaglandins release, α2-adrenoceptors stimulation, calcium release from internal stores and lifted inhibitory effect of cholesterol on uterine contractions in order to increase uterine smooth muscle contractions.
Keywords: Spondias mombin, uterus, contractions, calcium.