A comparative study of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in sickle cell disease subjects and controls in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria
Background: Sickle cell disease is characterized by chronic complications that affect almost all body organs. Pancreatic disease is rare in SCD. CA 19-9 is a non-specific surrogate marker for pancreatic disease especially carcinoma. CA 19-9 levels have not been evaluated in SCD patients in our environment.
Objectives: The study aimed to compare the levels of CA 19-9 in homozygous sickle cell disease subjects in steady state with those of (Hb AS) and normal healthy subjects (Hb AA)
Method: Seventy nine subjects including 39 Hb SS, 19 Hb AS and 21 Hb AA subjects were recruited in a cross-sectional study in Nnamdi Azikiwe University and Teaching Hospital. Haemoglobin genotype and CA 19-9 estimation were done using Hb electrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Data was analyzed with IBM SPSS 21. P value was set at 0.05.
Result: The mean CA 19-9 (U/ml) level in Hb SS, Hb AS and Hb AA were 13.6 ± 7.6, 15.3 ± 9.9, and 20.0 ± 15.9 respectively. [Reference value <37U/ml] CA 19-9 was significantly lower in Hb SS compared to Hb AA subjects (p = 0.035).
Conclusion: Low levels of CA 19-9 in Hb SS may suggest reduced pancreatic disorders in SCA.
Keywords: Hemoglobin phenotype, disease severity, carbohydrate antigen 9-19, pancreatic disease, sickle cell disease.