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A comparative study of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in sickle cell disease subjects and controls in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria

Patrick Manafa, Chide Okocha, Benedict Nwogho, John Aneke, Paul Smith Davis Okpara, Nancy lbeh, George Chukwuma, Vera Manafa, Ejike Nwane

Abstract


Background: Sickle cell disease is characterized by chronic complications that affect almost all body organs. Pancreatic disease is  rare in SCD. CA 19-9 is a non-specific surrogate marker for pancreatic disease especially carcinoma. CA 19-9 levels have not been evaluated in SCD patients in our environment.
Objectives: The study aimed to compare the levels of CA 19-9 in homozygous sickle cell disease subjects in steady state with those of (Hb AS) and normal healthy subjects (Hb AA)
Method: Seventy nine subjects including 39 Hb SS, 19 Hb AS and 21 Hb AA subjects were recruited in a cross-sectional study in Nnamdi Azikiwe University and Teaching Hospital.  Haemoglobin genotype and CA 19-9 estimation were done using Hb electrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Data was analyzed with IBM SPSS 21. P value was set at 0.05.
Result: The mean CA 19-9 (U/ml) level in Hb SS, Hb AS and Hb AA were 13.6 ± 7.6, 15.3 ± 9.9, and 20.0 ± 15.9 respectively. [Reference value <37U/ml] CA 19-9 was significantly lower in Hb SS compared to Hb AA subjects (p = 0.035).
Conclusion: Low levels of CA 19-9 in Hb SS may suggest reduced pancreatic disorders in SCA.

Keywords: Hemoglobin phenotype, disease severity, carbohydrate antigen 9-19, pancreatic disease, sickle cell disease.




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