Pre-operative pulmonary assessment and risk factors for post-operative pulmonary complications in elective abdominal surgery in Nigeria
Background and Objectives: Post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are recurring causes of rising morbidity and mortality in surgeries. This study sought to evaluate pre-operative risk factors for PPCs in abdominal surgerypatients in Nigeria.
Methodology: This was a prospective study in patients booked for surgery in 2014. Biodata, medical his tory, pre-operative respiratory and cardiovascular examination findings, body mass index, serum albumin, serum urea, ventilatory function, chest x-rays and oxygen saturation were obtained. The association between pre-operative variables and PPCs was determined.
Results: The pre-operative spirometry was predominantly restrictive (62%). Overall, the prevalence of PPCs was 52%. This included non-productive cough (14%), isolated productive cough (10%), productive cough with abnormal chest finding (16%), pneumonia (8%), pleural effusion (5%), ARDS (2%). Percentage predicted FEV1 and FVC were lower in participants with PPCs. (p= 0.03 and p=0.01respectively). Pre-operative cough, shortness of breath and consolidation were associated with PPCs (p< 0.05). Post-operative respiratory rate and pulse rate in participants with PPCs were higher than the values in those without PPCs (p=0.03 and p=0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of PPCs was high in this study. Pre-operative cough, shortness of breath, consolidation, abnor- mally low percentage predicted FEV1 and FVC were associated with PPCs.
Keywords: Post-operative pulmonary complications, pre-operative assessment, risk factors, cough, shortness of breath, consol- idation, pneumonia, elective abdominal surgeries, Nnewi, Nigeria.