Renal risk profiling in newly diagnosed hypertensives in an urban population in Nigeria
Introduction: Hypertension is a cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease globally. The other factors that work in concert with hypertension to cause CKD are yet to be clearly elucidated. Studies have identified proteinuria, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and family history of CKD as renal risk factors. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with occurrence of CKD including the enormous financial burden involved in its management, the knowledge of prevention and understanding of the risk factors for development of CKD is highly essential. Therefore, Identifying well defined risk factors that display strong graded association with the occurrence and progression of CKD can help in elucidating potential targets for disease modification.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal risk factors and their impact on kidney function in newly diagnosed hypertensive Nigerians.
Methods: This was a case control study of two hundred and fifty newly diagnosed hypertensive Nigerians recruited from two contiguous hospitals in an urban setting in south western Nigeria. Another group of two hundred and fifty apparently healthy age and sex matched normotensive Nigerians in the same community were recruited as controls.
Results: Seventy (28%) of the newly diagnosed hypertensives had estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60ml/min, while 42.4% and 18.8% of the subjects and the controls had microalbuminuria respectively. The newly diagnosed hypertensives had significantly higher prevalence of analgesic use (86.4% versus 41.6%, p < 0.001), alcohol consumption (20.8% versus 12%, p = 0.008), use of canned salted food (18.8% versus 8.4%, p= 0.001) and central obesity (36.1% versus 26.8%, p= 0.025) compared to controls.
Conclusion: There is a significant occurrence of modifiable renal risk factors in newly diagnosed hypertensives and this offers a platform for instituting preventive strategies in the community.
Keywords: Renal risk, hypertensives, urban population, Nigeria.
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