Association of environmental risk factors and trachoma in Gashoho Health District, Burundi
Background: Burundi is currently not meeting targets for elimination of trachoma and trichiasis by 2020 (GET2020). The recommended SAFE strategy (Surgery, antibiotics, face washing and environmental improvement) is currently not fully implemented in many areas of Burundi. The existence of associations between face-washing, sanitation and trachoma prevalence remain undocumented.
Methods: A convenience sample of 468 individuals from 117 households was drawn from attendees at trachoma clinics set up in four villages. Trachoma status, sex and age were recorded for all household members. Adult household members were surveyed about access to clean water and toilets, and knowledge of trachoma risk factors. Associations between cases of active trachoma per household and environmental risk factors were evaluated using generalised estimating equations.
Results: The overall prevalence of active trachoma was 7.1% (95% CI 5.0-9.6%), but 19.5% (95% CI13.7-26.4%) in children under nine years old. 0.9% (95% CI 0.3-2.0) of participants had trichiasis. Access to a sanitary toilet more than halved the odds of active trachoma (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.74%), however, participants did not appreciate this association.
Conclusion: Access to sanitation was associated with the occurrence of active trachoma. Future research should focus on whether improving knowledge of and access to sanitation might reduce trachoma prevalence.
Keywords: Environmental risk factors; trachoma; Gashoho Health District; Burundi.
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.