Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in Mbale Regional Referral Hospital, Eastern Uganda: a 10-year retrospective analysis

  • Matthew J Doe
  • Emmanuel Bua
  • John SO Obbo
  • Fred Bisso
  • Peter Olupot-Olupot
Keywords: Gastrointestinal; OGD; LMIC; oesophageal cancer.


Background: Endoscopy is required for formal diagnosis of many upper gastrointestinal (UGI) conditions including oe- sophageal cancer (OC). There is a paucity of data on endoscopy findings in East Africa as access to testing is challeng- ing for patients. We describe the findings of 10 years of UGI endoscopy in Mbale Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH).

Method: Records of patients that underwent UGI endoscopy in MRRH, November 2009 – March 2019 were retrospective- ly analysed. Indication, macroscopic findings, histology and patient demographics were retrieved. Sub-group analyses were performed on those with a histological diagnosis of oesophageal cancer.

Results: 833 eligible patients received single UGI procedures during the study period. Mean age was 54.8 years, range 16-93 years and 56.9% of patients were male. The main indication was dysphagia (42%) and the most common findings OC (34%) and gastritis (28%). 151 patients had histologically proven OC with a median age of 60 years and a 2:1 male to female ratio. 145/151 (96%) of samples tested revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Conclusion: Those undergoing endoscopy in MRRH are most commonly male patients presenting in their 5th decade with dysphagia. There is a high proportion of significant findings including gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and oesophageal cancer.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal; OGD; LMIC; oesophageal cancer.


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eISSN: 1680-6905