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Preterm birth and its associated factors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta- analysis

Fikadu Waltengus Sendeku
Fentahun Yenealem Beyene
Azimeraw Arega Tesfu
Simachew Animen Bante
Getnet Gedefaw Azeze


Background: Preterm birth is a public health concern globally. In low- and middle-income countries, like Ethiopia, preterm birth is under reported and underestimated. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the pooled preva- lence and associated risk factors for preterm birth in Ethiopia.

Methods: In this review the databases used were PubMed, Google scholar, EMBASE, HINARI and African journal online. Publication bias was checked using a funnel plot and Eggers test.

Results: A total of 30 studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of preterm birth in Ethiopia was 11.4% (95% CI; 9.04, 13.76). On pooled analysis, preterm birth was associated with pregnan- cy-induced hypertension being HIV-positive, premature rupture of membrane, rural residence, the mother having a history of abortion, multiple pregnancies, and anemia during pregnancy.

Conclusion: The national prevalence of preterm birth in Ethiopia was low. Early identifying those pregnant women who are at risk of the above determinants and proving quality healthcare and counsel them how to prevent preterm births, which decrease the rate of preterm birth and its consequences. So, both governmental and non-governmental health sectors work on the minimization of these risk factors.

Keywords: Prevalence; pre-term birth; determinants; systematic review; meta-analysis; Ethiopia.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1729-0503
print ISSN: 1680-6905