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Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is the first leading cause of invasive diseases such as meningitis, bacteremia and pneumoniae in children. In this case we report an early neonatal respiratory distress revealing meningitis caused by
S. pneumoniae Serotype 17F through vertical transmission, in the newborn of 3 hours of live.
Case description: A male late preterm newborn was born by vaginal delivery at a gestational age of 34 weeks. At 3 hours of life, he was admitted for early moderate neonatal respiratory distress in the Neonatal Medicine and Resuscitation Service.
Cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded S. pneumoniae belonging to serotype 17F while the blood culture was negative. The same pneumococcal serotype was recovered from the high vaginal swab of the mother. Both isolates were found susceptible to all tested antibiotics except tetracycline and chloramphenicol to which the strain was resistant. Antibiotherapy management of the child included ceftriaxone at 150mg/kg/day for 21 days, in combination with gentamycin at 5 mg/kg/day for 5 days. ciprofloxacin was added at 40mg/kg/day in two doses for a period of three weeks as the baby presented a hydrocephalus.
Conclusion: This finding shows that clinical manifestations of neonatal pneumococcal meningitis may be atypical and/or misleading.
Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; neonatal meningitis; respiratory distress.