HIV genotypic resistance among pregnant women initiating ART in Uganda: a baseline evaluation of participants in the Option B+ clinical trial
Background: Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance is a threat to elimination of mother to child HIV transmission and could lead to virological failure among HIV-positive pregnant women. We analysed genotypic HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) of baseline samples of participants enrolled in the Option B+ clinical trial in Uganda.
Methods: HIV-infected pregnant women attending antenatal care were enrolled from Uganda’s National Referral Hospital (Mulago) and Mityana District general hospital and surrounding health centers (HCs). Genotypic HIV testing was performed on blood samples from the first 135 enrolled women out of a subset of 136 participants (25%) who had a baseline VL>1000 copies/mL as one sample failed to amplify.
Results: 159/540 (29.4%) had a VL < 1000 copies/ml and 381/540 (70.6%) had a VL >1,000 copies/ml. Of the women with VL>1000 copies/ml, 32 (23.7%) had resistance mutations including 29/135 (21.5%) NNRTI mutations, 6/135 (4.4%) NRTI mutations and 3/135 (2.2%) had both NNRTI and NRTI mutations. The most common NNRTI resistance mutations were: K103KN (5), K103N (5), V179T (4) and E138A (4).
Conclusions: One quarter of the HIV-infected pregnant women in this trial at baseline had NNRTI genotypic resistance mutations. Our findings support new WHO guidelines for first-line ART that were changed to dolutegravir-based regimens.
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.
3.0 I and all co-authors, agree that the paper, if accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. (see https://creativecommons.org/)