HIV genotypic resistance among pregnant women initiating ART in Uganda: a baseline evaluation of participants in the Option B+ clinical trial

  • Alexander Amone
  • Priscilla Wavamunno
  • Grace Gabagaya
  • Gordon Rukundo
  • Joyce Namale-Matovu
  • Samuel S Malamba
  • Irene Lubega
  • Jaco Homsy
  • Rachel King
  • Clemensia Nakabiito
  • Monica Nolan
  • Mary Glenn Fowler
  • Philippa Musoke
Keywords: NIL.


Background: Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance is a threat to elimination of mother to child HIV transmission and could lead to virological failure among HIV-positive pregnant women. We analysed genotypic HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) of baseline samples of participants enrolled in the Option B+ clinical trial in Uganda.
Methods: HIV-infected pregnant women attending antenatal care were enrolled from Uganda’s National Referral Hospital (Mulago) and Mityana District general hospital and surrounding health centers (HCs). Genotypic HIV testing was performed on blood samples from the first 135 enrolled women out of a subset of 136 participants (25%) who had a baseline VL>1000 copies/mL as one sample failed to amplify.
Results: 159/540 (29.4%) had a VL < 1000 copies/ml and 381/540 (70.6%) had a VL >1,000 copies/ml. Of the women with VL>1000 copies/ml, 32 (23.7%) had resistance mutations including 29/135 (21.5%) NNRTI mutations, 6/135 (4.4%) NRTI mutations and 3/135 (2.2%) had both NNRTI and NRTI mutations. The most common NNRTI resistance mutations were: K103KN (5), K103N (5), V179T (4) and E138A (4).
Conclusions: One quarter of the HIV-infected pregnant women in this trial at baseline had NNRTI genotypic resistance mutations. Our findings support new WHO guidelines for first-line ART that were changed to dolutegravir-based regimens.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1729-0503
print ISSN: 1680-6905