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Objectives: A case-control study was carried out to determine the association between socio-demographic and HIV risk variables and HIV infection among people visiting HIV counseling and testing centers in two districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cases (n=1093) and controls (n=1162) were compared by socio-demographics, exposure to substances, and risky behaviours that predispose them to HIV infection.
Results: In multivariable analysis, having children, having been diagnosed with a a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past three months, not having had oral sex in the past three months, lack of condom use consistency in the past three months, and lack of HIV behavioural skills enactments were significantly associated with HIV positive status.
Conclusion: HIV risk behaviour was found to be a significant risk factor for HIV infection in the study population. There is urgent need for health education to bring about behavioural changes to reduce HIV infection in the community.