Prevalence of Microalbuminuria among secondary school children
Background: Microalbuminuria is an early sign of kidney and cardiovascular damage. Therefore, early detection in asymptomatic individuals may be helpful in preventing deterioration in renal function.
Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 820 secondary school students aged 10 – 19 years from September to November 2008. The urine samples of 615 (75.0%) without overt proteinuria and haematuria were tested for microalbuminuria using the micral test strips. Values of greater than 20mg/L were considered positive. Results: There were 299 (48.6%) males and 316 (51.4%) females, with a M:F ratio of 1:1.1. The prevalence of microalbuminuria as seen in 214 of the students was 33.2%. It was significantly higher in females (45.3%), obese subjects (35.4%), those with hypertension (70.6%), those with positive family history of hypertension (59.5%), and diabetes mellitus (46.4%). Microalbuminuria was found in 1 of the 2 subjects who had features of DM and in one subject with sickle cell anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Nigerian adolescents is high. We recommend routine screening for microalbuminuria in adolescents for early detection and prevention of renal damage.
Key words: microalbuminuria, obesity, hypertension, children, Nigeria