Sabin and wild type polioviruses from children who presented with acute flaccid paralysis in Nigeria
Background: Sensitive poliovirus surveillance to detect vaccine-derived-polioviruses will continue to increase in importance.
Objective: Isolating and identifying poliovirus strains from children of pediatrics age in Nigeria.
Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were randomly collected from children under the age of five who presented with acute flaccid paralysis. Samples were tested by tissue culture technique and further characterized by intratypic differentiation testing using ELISA and PCR methods.
Results: The study confirmed the presence of 22(18.3%) enteroviral isolates comprising 19(86.4%) polioviruses and 3(13.6%) non-polio enteroviruses. These 19 polioviruses include: Sabin-type poliovirus-1 (15.8%), poliovirus-2 (10.5%), poliovirus-3 (10.5%) and wild-type poliovirus-1 (63.2%) isolates. It showed that poliovirus infection was higher in children ages 6-11 months (18.9%), females (18.4%), northern states (91.0%) with no vaccination record (75.0%). Wild-type poliovirus-1 was isolated from the stool samples of 12(54.6%) children from northern states and in all age groups except 18-23 months. No significant differences (P >0.05) between poliovirus infection and age (18.9% vs. 17.7%; 81.9% vs. 18.2%) and sex (18.3% vs. 18.4%). There was significant differences (P<0.05) between poliovirus infection and location (91.0% vs. 9.0%) and history of polio vaccination (75.0% vs. 0.0%). No wild-type poliovirus was found in those with complete vaccination.
Conclusion: This study further confirms the presence of Sabin and wild-type poliovirus among children in Nigeria. The isolation of Sabin strain of poliovirus is advantageous to the polio eradication program as it is capable of inducing natural immunity in susceptible hosts. Transmission of wild-type poliovirus among children with incomplete vaccination poses a
serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria. Environmental and serological surveillance with larger sample size are important for monitoring poliovirus circulation in Nigeria.
Keywords: Acute flaccid paralysis, ELISA, ITD, RT-PCR, Poliovirus, Sabin