Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological and behavioral changes in male mice
Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups. The first (control group) received distilled water, while the second and third groups were administrated 300 and 600 mg/kg aluminum chloride, respectively, by oral route for 20 days. Thereafter, they were subjected to “standard opponent” test. A significant decrease in testosterone levels in the treated groups was obtained at both the low and high doses of aluminum. Expectedly, significant decreases were observed in the social contacts, threat, attack and number of fights of both treated groups in a dose dependant manner. All blood parameters revealed a dose dependent significant decrease as well. A significant decrease in both serotonin and dopamine levels was simultaneously obtained with the decrease of testosterone level especially at the high dose of aluminum. In contrast, at the high dose, acetylcholine recorded significantly high value. In conclusion, aluminum-induced testosterone decrease resulted in a significant decline in aggression, several blood parameters and levels of neurotransmitters.
Keywords: Aluminum, Swiss-Webster mice, standard opponent test, social behavior, testosterone