Genetic differentiation in Japanese flounder in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and mitochondrial DNA markers
The population structure of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the Yellow and East China Seas were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequencing. A total of 390 reproducible bands were generated by 10 AFLP primer combinations in two populations collected from the coasts of Qingdao (located at the Yellow Sea) and Zhoushan (located at the East China Sea). The percentage of polymorphic loci (P), Nei’s genetic diversity (H) and Shannon’s information index (I) values were higher in the Qingdao population (P = 72.85%, H = 0.243 and I = 0.364) than those in the Zhoushan population (P = 56.35%, H = 0.189 and I = 0.284). The genetic diversity reduction in the Zhoushan population may be attributed to fishing pressure and habitat loss in this area. Based on the COI sequencing analysis, a total of 25 polymorphic sites were examined, and 15 haplotypes were identified in the two populations. The haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) values in the Qingdao population were 0.746 ± 0.0728 and 0.00334 ± 0.00103, respectively. The corresponding values in the Zhoushan population were 0.712 ± 0.0470 and 0.00318 ± 0.00049. Both the AFLP and mtDNA data revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two populations. The present study discussed the factors that may result in genetic differentiation between the populations in the Yellow and East China Seas.
Keywords: Japanese flounder, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, genetic diversity, population structure