Dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive outpatients attending University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Inappropriate eating habits and sedentary lifestyle predispose to hypertension. This study assessed dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive outpatients attending Cardiology Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan. This research was descriptive and cross-sectional, including 92 hypertensive patients (37 males; 55 females). Interviewer-administered and Food Frequency Questionnaires were used for socio-demographic and lifestyle data, and dietary pattern respectively. The patients’ anthropometry was assessed. Mean of their last four blood pressure readings was calculated. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed at p<0.05. The patients’ mean age was 55.7±13.32 years. Majority were married. Many had secondary and tertiary education. Up to 87.0% did not drink alcohol and 98.9% never smoked cigarette. Most of them worked for 6 days while 53.2% engaged in moderate physical fitness 1-2 days a week but less than 30 minutes per day. Only few (26.1%) received dietary counseling from dietitians. Breakfast was mostly consumed. Half of them cooked their foods at home while others ate with food vendors every week. Fruits and vegetables were rarely consumed. Large number had Body Mass Index ≥ 25kg/m2. BMI of the male and female patients was statistically different (χ2= 10.299, p<0.006). Most females and males of the hypertensive patients had waist-to-hip ratio above cut off points. More than half had uncontrolled blood pressure. Many were young adults and elderly who had not visited dietitians, and did not regularly consume fruits and vegetables. Majority had sedentary lifestyle. Female patients were more obese and overweighed with poor control of hypertension than male patients.
Keywords: Dietary pattern, lifestyle, nutrition status, hypertension