Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Senna occidentalis on Rat Kidney
Senna occidentalis is one of the most widely used herbal plants for various therapeutic purposes in Sokoto, Nigeria. Renal function and histopathological effects of aqueous leave extract of Senna occidentalis was investigated in Wistar rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out using standard procedures and this was followed by an acute toxicity study using Lorke’s method. Twenty (20) rats were randomly selected and grouped into 5 groups of 4 rats each having a control group and 4 test groups. Aqueous leaf extract of S. occidentalis was administered orally to each test group at different concentrations of 350mg/kg, 700mg/kg, 1500mg/kg and 3000mg/kg body weight respectively for 28days. Blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for electrolytes, urea and createnine biochemical analyses while the kidneys were collected through abdominal incision for histopathological analyses using haematoxylin and eosin staning method. Data generated was analyzed using GraphPad instat3 version 3.02 and presented as mean ± SEM, statistical comparison between groups were made using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Bonferroni Multiple Comparison Test. Phytochemical screening showed presence of carbohydrate, tannins, triterpenoids, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, diterpenoids and cardiac glycosides while alkaloids and anthraquinones were not detected. The animals did not show behavioral changed nor death even at a concentration of 5000mg/kg during acute toxicity testing. There were no significant effects on biochemical parameters between test groups and control. Histological sections of the kidney showed well-preserved glomeruli and tubules with only few animals showing mild to moderate sclerosis which is not dose-dependent. Oral administration of up to 3000mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of Senna occidentalis for 28 days did not produce significant effects on the kidneys of Wistar rats thereby suggesting its non-lethal effect on the kidneys.
Keywords: Senna occidentalis, kidney, sub-acute administration, renal function