Protective Effect of Oral Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) on Acetaminophen-Induced Renal Injury in Rats
The incidence of acetaminophen-induced nephropathy is reported to be increasing, with no available prophylactic or curative regimen. The present study is an experimental animal study designed to evaluate the protective effects of graded oral doses of ascorbic acid (ASC) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced nephrotoxic rats for 14 days. A total of thirty, young adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (I – V) of six rats in each group. Group I rats were administered 10 ml/kg/day of normal saline via the oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively, while group II rats were pretreated with 10 ml/kg of normal saline one hour before administration of 200 mg/kg/day of intraperitoneal APAP. Groups III – V rats were administered single, daily, oral 100 - 500 mg/kg of ASC 1 hour before 200 mg/kg/day of intraperitoneal APAP for 14 days. On the 15th day, blood samples for serum urea and creatinine and full blood count were collected via cardiac puncture under inhaled diethyl ether. The rat kidneys were also harvested for histopathological examination. Results showed that repeated, single daily intraperitoneal 200 mg/kg of APAP for 14 days, reliably induced a significant (p<0.05) increase in the serum urea and creatinine while causing a significant (p<0.05) decrease in PCV, TLC and MCHC values along with acute tubular nephritis on histopathology in group II rats. However, these effects were significantly (p<0.05) reversed in rats pre-treated with ASC in dose related fashion. The nephroprotection of ASC could be due to its inherent antioxidant effect.
Keywords: Acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity; Ascorbic acid; renal function parameters; Rats