Copper Level in Fish, Selected Fresh and Marine Aquatic Ecosystems in Nigeria
Fish have been valued as excellent indicators of water quality because they integrate all the stresses placed on the aquatic ecosystem. This study was conducted to investigate the level of copper in selected Freshwater (Awba Dam, Asejire and Eleyele rivers), Marine waters (Lekki Lagoon and Victoria Island Ocean) and fishes that live in these ecosystems in Nigeria. Upstream and downstream samples of water and fish were collected monthly for a period of five months. The results obtained shows that the level of copper in fresh water was non-significantly (p=0.39) higher (1.1mg/l) than that of marine water (0.8 mg/l) at 95% confidence limit. The concentration of Cu in fish was a reverse relation since marine fish accumulated a higher (5.2mg/kg) copper relative to freshwater fish (4.27mg/kg). The difference in values was also not significant (p>0.05). The Bio-concentration factors was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the marine environment (6.4) relative to freshwater (4.2). This study suggests that the monitoring of Nigerian marine and freshwater for copper and other heavy metals is important to protect human health.
Keywords: Copper, Water pollution, Marine, Freshwater, Fish, Nigeria.