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Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial consumption and resistance: 2015-2018 longitudinal survey results from Nigeria

C.D. Umeokonkwo
O.O. Oduyebo
A. Fadeyi
A. Versporten
O.I. Ola-Bello
A. Fowotade
C.J. Elikwu
I. Pauwels
A. Kehinde
A. Ekuma
H. Goossens
A.N. Adedosu
I.N. Nwafia
P. Nwajiobi-Princewill
F.T. Ogunsola
A.T. Olayinka
K.C. Iregbu


Background: Nigeria joined the global community in monitoring antimicrobial prescribing practices since 2015. Results of individual hospital Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) have stimulated efforts at instituting hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes. We report the trends of antimicrobial prescribing rates and quality indicators for 3 surveillance periods; 2015, 2017 and 2018.
Methodology: The web-based Global-PPS for surveillance of antimicrobial use in hospitals ( was completed by each participating hospital site for all inpatients receiving antimicrobials on a selected day in 2015, 2017 and 2018. Data included details on antimicrobial agents, reasons and indications for treatment and a set of quality prescribing indicators. Data were validated by the web-based data management system of University of Antwerp, exported into Microsoft Excel and analyzed with EPI INFO version 7.2.
Results: Thirteen hospitals participated in the survey involving a total of 5,174 inpatients. Mean weighted overall antimicrobial prescribing prevalence was 70.7% which declined over the years from 71.7% in 2015 to 59.1% in 2018 (p<0.001). The rate of documentation of date for post prescription review improved from 27.9% in 2015 to 48.5% in 2018 (p<0.001) while the rates of targeted treatment declined from 12.0% in 2015 to 5.2% in 2018 (p<0.001). There was no significant change in the choice of parenteral drug administration (64.5% in 2015, 65.1% in 2017 and 62.6% in 2018; p=0.6803), and but there was significant increase in documentation of reasons for prescription in case notes (62.2% in 2015, 74.5% in 2017, and 70.9% in 2018; p=0.008). Overall, the main indications for therapeutic prescribing were skin and soft tissue infections (20.8%), sepsis (15.9%) and pneumonia (11.6%). The top three antibiotics for therapeutic use were ceftriaxone (18.2%), metronidazole (15.3%) and ciprofloxacin (10.4%).
Conclusions: The survey showed reduction in the overall antimicrobial prescribing rate especially in hospitals that had introduced AMS programmes. Among the quality prescribing indicators, documentation of post prescription review date showed improvement. The Global-PPS serves as a cost effective, flexible and userfriendly tool in instituting AMS programmes in hospitals.

Keywords: antimicrobial prescribing, hospital, global-point prevalence survey, quality indicators

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eISSN: 1595-689X