Impact of Antiretroviral Drugs on Renal Doppler Indices of Adult Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Sub-Saharan African Population
Background: The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the management of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality as a result of HIV infections worldwide. However, there have been associated organ toxicities including nephro-toxicity. The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of antiretroviral drugs on renal Doppler indices of adult patients with HIV/AIDS in a Sub-Saharan Africa population.
Materials and Methods: This study design was a prospective cohort conducted from July 2019 to April 2020 in Kano, Nigeria. A purposive sampling method was employed to obtain a sample size of 396 participants. The sampling for the renal RI and PI was performed at the level of the interlober arteries in between the medullary pyramids.
Results: Subjects on Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Navirapine regimen had the highest values of resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) (0.66±0.05 and 1.44±0.09). Those on Tenofovir Disoproxil Furamate /Lamivudine /Lopinavir/ritonavir had the lowest values of resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) (0.61±0.01 and 1.38±0.06). There was a statistically significance difference in the mean of the RI and PI between the different groups of the drugs regimens (p=0.000).
Conclusion: In this study Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Navirapine regimen had the highest negative impact on RI and PI while Tenofovir Disoproxil Furamate /Lamivudine /Lopinavir/ritonavir had the lowest.