Effects of Achyranthes Aspera, Bidens Pilosa and Ajuga Remota Leaf Extracts on Serum Glucose and Electrolyte Levels in Alloxan Treated Male Goats
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that causes a major health concern and whose prevalence has continuously increased globally over the past few decades. It has been considered as an incurable non-communicable metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies affecting about 2.8% of the population worldwide. Derangement of water and electrolyte balances was found to occur in subjects with diabetes mellitus, resulting from insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and hyperketonemia. Electrolytes imbalance contributes to complications observed in diabetes and pose a significant risk of contracting many diseases. In the present study, we compared the anti-diabetic activities of ethanolic leaf extracts of A. aspera, B. pilosa and A. remota and their influence on serum levels of glycemia, natremia, calcemia, kalemia, and chloremia in diabetic Small East African male goats.
Materials and Methods:
Eighteen young goats aged between 10 and 16 months were divided into six groups comprising of three animals each and given oral treatments as follows: Group I healthy control that received 4ml normal saline/day; group II diabetic control that received 4ml normal saline/day; group III received conventional glibenclamide drug at 0.125mg/kg bw/day; group IV, V and VI received 250mg/kg bw/day of leaf extracts of A. aspera, B. pilosa and A. remota respectively. Serum electrolytes Na+, Cl-, Ca2+ and K+ levels were determined. Results obtained were tabulated, coded and processed using SPSS software.
Data was summarized and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics respectively. The probability values (p-value) were determined using t-test and ANOVA at 5% level (P<0.05) of significance. The results showed diabetic goats became hyperglycemic with significant increase in Na+ (139.89±16.25), K+ (9.16±3.01), Cl- (121.29±5.56) and a concomitant significant decrease in Ca2+ (1.024±0.62). B. pilosa was able to restore almost all these aberrations to normal levels whereas A. aspera and A. remota moderately restored some parameters to normal levels
The results demonstrated antidiabetic activity of B. pilosa and moderately by A. aspera and A. remota crude leaf extracts in the management of diabetes mellitus in alloxan-induced diabetic goats and hence restoration of electrolytes balance.
Keywords: Electrolytes, Hyperglycemia, Na+, K+, Cl- Ca2+, Diabetes Mellitus