A review of viral hepatitis in HIV positive patients using UBTH as case study
Introduction: Nigeria belongs to the group of countries highly endemic for viral hepatitis, unfortunately little is known about the burden of co-infection in HIV positive patients and the interaction between these two viruses as it affects the natural history of viral hepatitis, management and prevalence.
Methods: This work was based on the review of medical records of 200 HIV positive patients, (130 females and 70 males). Ages: 17-80years at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin city, Nigeria.
Results: HCV/HBV infection is more serious in HIV- infected patients and this leads to liver damage more quickly. It aggravates the risk of antiretroviral (ARD) associated hepatotoxicity. HIV is also linked to “sero-silent” HBV infections, which present a problem with diagnosis. Prevalence of co-infection of 26.9% for HBV which is higher than in HIV negative patients with a prevalence of 14.3%. HCV had a prevalence of 5.7%. The prevalence of the test done was found to be 25.5% for HBV and 3% for HCV. A prevalence of 17.64% for HBV in HIV positive patients and 16.7% for HCV was estimated.
Conclusion: The study confirms that HIV and HBV/HCV interact to a large extent. Therefore there is need to sensitize health workers in Nigeria on the need to take cognizance of this fact and improve on the current low level of test conducted on HIV positive patients and vaccination done. Early diagnosis and vaccination can prevent mortality due to co-infection. It is also necessary that studies be carried out on the interaction between HIV and Hepatitis virus infection as it affects HAART.
Keywords: Viral Hepatitis; HIV; HCV; HBV.