Anti-nutrients and mineral nutrient potential of gmelina (Gmelina arborea) fruit and fruit pulp from Akamkpa, southeastern Nigeria: Implication for livestock feeding
The study investigated the mineral and anti-nutrient composition of ripe gmelina whole fruit (RGWF), unripe gmelina whole fruit (UGWF) and ripe gmelina fruit pulp (RGFP) as potential livestock feed ingredients. The fruit pulp was low in alkanoid (0.14-0.58%DM), and phyto-haemaglutinnin (136-
276Hu/g) but high in tannin (0.39-0.53%DM) oxalate (0.05-15.66%DM), phytate (0.02-0.53%DM), cyanogenic glycosides (8.98-15.66%DM). The anti-nutrients were mainly concentrated in the pulp. The RGWF, UGWF and RGFP were high in calcium (240-560 mg/100g), potassium (148.80-750mg/100g), phosphorus (330-460mg/100g), magnesium (200-340mg/100g), iron (148.80-182.90mg/100g), zinc (24.18-74.88mg/100g), copper (5.14-1327mg/100g), cobalt (0.08-0.41mg/100g), chromium (0.04.0.28mg/100g), selenium (0.01-0.02mg/100g), but poor in sodium, molybdenum, sulphur and fluorine while iodine was below detectable limit. The chromium and selenium levels were below toxic thresholds. RGFP had the highest (p<0.05) values for all the minerals except phosphorus. We conclude
that for the gmelina fruit and fruit pulp to be used in livestock diets especially monogastrics, there may be need for processing to reduce the anti-nutrient content.
Keywords: Gmelina, fruit, livestock, anti-nutrients, mineral nutrients