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Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by <i>Antiaris africana</i> leaf extract following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

Omotayo B. Ilesanmi
Afolabi C. Akinmoladun
Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju
Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu
M. Tolulope Olaleye
Afolabi A. Akindahunsi


Background: Oxidative stress plays a significant role in stroke pathogenesis. Hence, plants rich in antioxidant phytochemicals have been suggested as effective remedies for prevention and treatment of stroke and other neurological diseases. Antiaris africana Engl. (Moraceae) is traditionally used for the management of brain-related problems but there is paucity of data on its anti-stroke potential.

Materials and Methods: Ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by a 30 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion/ 2 h reperfusion (BCCAO/R) in the brain of male Wistar rats. A sham-operated group which was not subjected to BCCAO/R and a group subjected to BCCAO/R without treatment with MEA served as controls. The ameliorative effect of 14 days of pretreatment with 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg A. africana methanol leaf extract (MEA) on BCCAO/R-mediated alterations to key markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and neurochemical disturbances and excitotoxicity (myeloperoxidase, glutamine synthetase, Na+/K+ ATPase, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosine hydroxylase), was evaluated and compared with the effect produced by treatment with 20 mg/kg quercetin as a reference standard.

Results: Results show that pretreatment with MEA significantly mitigated or reversed BCCAO/R-induced changes in the level or activity of the evaluated biochemical markers of oxidative stress, neurochemical dysfunction and excitotoxicity compared with the BCCAO/R untreated control group (p < 0.05). The effect produced by 100 mg/kg MEA was similar to that of the reference standard, quercetin.

Conclusion: These results revealed the neuroprotective potential of A. africana in stroke and other ischemia-related pathologies.

Keywords: brain ischemia; excitotoxicity; neuroprotection; oxidative stress; phytochemicals; stroke