Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty repair in adult hypospadias patients. Are results similar to those reported in the pediatric age group? A prospective study
Objective: Most studies published in the literature report on the results of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU) for hypospadias repair in children. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the results of TIPU repair in adults.
Patients and methods: The records of 60 adult patients with primary hypospadias treated with TIPU between April 2009 and May 2012 were reviewed. All the procedures were done by the same surgeon under similar conditions and using the same kind of instruments and suture material. On clinical examination, the meatal location, as well as the presence/absence of chordee and penile torsion was assessed. The quality of the spongiosum and the width of the urethral plate were evaluated intraoperatively. The postoperative complications and results were recorded and the data were analyzed.
Results: The patients’ age ranged from 16 to 27 years with a mean of 21 years. Out of the 60 cases, 43 (72%) had distal penile, 7 (11%) mid-penile and 10 (17%) proximal hypospadias. Penile torsion was present in 10 (17%) cases with 80% having a torsion ≤45◦ and 20% having a torsion of 45–90◦. Ventral chordee ranging from 30◦ to 90◦ was present in 14 (23%) cases. Chordee correction was possible by penile de-gloving in 4 (29%) patients (2 with distal and 2 with mid penile hypospadias), by further mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum in 3 (21%) and by proximal urethral mobilization in another 6 (42%) patients with proximal hypospadias. One (7%) patient also required tunica albuginea plication. The urethral plate was wide in 22 (37%), average in 26 (43%) and narrow in 12 (20%) patients. Fifty percent of the patients with a narrow urethral plate developed complications, compared to 15% of the patients whose urethral plate had an average width and none of the patients with a wide urethral plate. The spongiosum was well developed in 38 (63%) patients, while in 11 (18%) patients each the spongiosum was moderately and poorly developed. The complication rates were significantly higher (55%) in patients with a poorly developed spongiosum as compared to those with a well-developed spongiosum. The overall complication rate was 17% including fistula in 10% of the patients (2 patients with mid-penile and 4 patients with proximal hypospadias). Meatal stenosis was found in 4 patients with distal hypospadias (7%) who responded well to meatal dilatation. The fistula cases required surgical repair with a success rate of 100%. Mean hospitalization and follow-up were 9 days and 6–24 (median 37) months, respectively.
Conclusions: Complications encountered in the present study were urethral fistula and meatal stenosis with a higher incidence in patients with proximal hypospadias than reported in the literature. The important factors for the outcome of TIPU were the severity of hypospadias, the degree of curvature and the development of the spongiosum and urethral plate. Proximal hypospadias with a poor urethral plate and severe curvature in adults is not suitable for TIPU. In such cases, single-stage flap urethroplasty or two-stage buccal mucosal urethroplasty should be considered instead.
Keywords: TIPU; Hypospadias; Repair; Results; Adults; Pediatric; Variable; Chordee; Type of hypospadias; Spongiosum urethral plate