Use and ease of self-administered International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) and Visual Prostate Symptoms Score (VPSS) questionnaires for the assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in Nigerian men

  • OO Abiola
  • AA Ajape
  • SO Adeniyi
  • SC Ayeni
Keywords: International Prostate Symptoms Score, Visual Prostate Symptoms Score, Lower urinary tract symptoms, Nigeria


Objectives: To evaluate the use of the Visual Prostate Symptoms Score (VPSS) and International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) questionnaires for the assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Nigerian men, with special emphasis on the ease of administration and the time needed to complete the questionnaires.

Patients and methods: This cross-sectional survey of men with LUTS was carried out at a tertiary-care hospital in Nigeria between July and December, 2014. The symptoms were assessed using the IPSS and VPSS questionnaires. A structured questionnaire was created to collect data on socio-demographics, literacy, visual impairment and the time needed to complete the IPSS and VPSS questionnaires. The data were collated, and Pearson’s chi-square test was performed using a contingency table. Spearman’s rank correlation test was done for IPSS and VPSS, while the paired t-test was used for the average time spent in completing both questionnaires. A p-value <0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Ninety patients aged between 56 and 80 years were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one (34.4%) were literate in English, while 59 (65.6%) were illiterate. The literate patients with at least secondary education completed the IPSS questionnaire without assistance. The VPSS questionnaire was completed without assistance by 43 (72.9%) illiterate patients, while all the patients with visual impairment needed assistance to complete it. There was a statistically significant correlation between the IPSS and VPSS. Completion of the VPSS questionnaire required half of the time needed to complete the IPSS questionnaire.

Conclusion: To complete the IPSS questionnaire, Nigerian men require a literacy status of at least secondaryeducation. VPSS correlated significantly with IPSS. Both questionnaires can be used to assess LUTS inuneducated patients and those with a low educational level, but visual impairment may preclude their use.It takes less time to complete the VPSS compared to the IPSS questionnaire.

Keywords: International Prostate Symptoms Score; Visual Prostate Symptoms Score; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Nigeria


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eISSN: 1110-5704