Role of MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF as serum biomarker in early prognosis of renal cell carcinoma
Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma epitomizes a diversified group of tumors which contributes more than 15,000 deaths annually worldwide. In spite of tremendous efforts to identify prognostic factors apart from grade, histology and tumor size, they are not so obvious yet to fulfill the requirement. In this study, the prognostic role of serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, 9, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with pre and postoperative renal cell carcinoma are evaluated to use as biomarker.
Patients and methods: A total of 100 patients with a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma included in the study. Additionally, hundred healthy kidney donors enrolled as control, serum MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF levels were analyzed in the serum of post and preoperative patients and parallel in control serum samples by ELISA method.
Result: Most of the patients with RCC were found to have high concentrations of serum MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF. The levels of MMP-2 in the serum of preoperative patients ranged from 627 to 1117 ng/ml (833.90 ± 111.91), postoperative MMP-2 range 302–913 (553.02 ± 150.08), control range 122–384 (228.33 ± 72.52). In MMP-9 pre-operative range 619–1233 (862.32 ± 119.77), post-operative range 124–909 (552.88 ± 151.91) and control range 42–467 (245.44 ± 116.52 and in VEGF preoperative range was 0.792–2.214 (1.35 ± 0.36), postoperative range was 0.315–1.917 (0.81 ± 0.46) and in control it was 0.01–0.39 (0.10 ± 0.09). We observed that preoperative levels of all three markers, were significantly increased if compared with postoperative and control levels (P = 0.001) however, no any significant correlation found when the levels correlated with grade, stage, size, and type for MMP-2 and MMP-9, but VEGF shows some significance in comparison.