Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy
Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Characterization of HSCs includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD34 and CD45, while characterization of MSC includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD90 and CD105, and the absence of hemopoietic lineage markers.
Aim&methods: The aim of the present work was to study the role of bone marrow-derived HSCs and MSCs, renal progenitor cells and SCF in chronic renal allograft nephropathy in relation to renal hemodynamics and histopathological changes. We studied 30 patients with kidney transplantation for more than 6 months, divided into 15 patients with stable serum creatinine and 15 patients who developed CAN. Detection of HSCs and MSCs in the peripheral blood using flow cytometry via detection of CD34, CD45, CD117 and CD106, as well as immunohistochemical detection of CD34, CD133, VEGF and aSMA in transplanted kidney biopsies of patients with CAN were done.
Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of SCF, number of peripheral blood HSCs and MSCs in both transplanted patient groups than the controls and they were higher in patients of group Ia than patients of group Ib, (F =39.73, P < 0.001), (F = 13.28, P< 0.001), (F= 11.94, P <0.001), respectively and this was accompanied by evident expression of markers of renal repair.
Conclusion: Stem cells might have a role in renal regeneration in CAN and this may pave the way toward the use of stem cells in correction of CAN.
KEYWORDS Chronic allograft nephropathy; Hematopoietic stem cells; Mesenchymal stem cells; Stem cell factor; Renal regeneration