Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Comparison of KDIGO and KDOQI guidelines
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), has become a public health concern as it has been reported to cause adverse outcomes such as kidney failure and premature death. This cross sectional study compared the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) and Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines in assessing the prevalence of CKD in Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients.
Methods: We consecutively sampled a cross-section of 202 T2DM patients from the Ho municipality in the Volta region (Ghana). Structured pre-tested questionnaires were administered to obtain information on gender, age, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, medication used, duration on medication, and duration of diabetes. Serum creatinine and urine protein were estimated using standard protocols and CKD was classified according to KDIGO and KDOQI guidelines.
Results: The prevalence of CKD was 63.4% and 58.4% using the KDIGO and KDOQI guidelines respectively. The prevalence of mildly decreased renal function or worse (eGFR < 60/ml/min/1.73 m2) was 10.4% for KDIGO guideline and 7.9% for KDOQI guidelines with an excellent agreement between both definitions showing bias = -0.129, 95%CI = (-0.17 to -0.08) on Bland-Altman analysis. Participants older than 70 years were more likely to have CKD when KDIGO criteria was used (P = 0.018). The prevalence of albuminuria was 47.0% with 21.9% presenting with 1+ and 2+ grades.
Conclusion: KDIGO guideline estimates higher prevalence of CKD than KDOQI guidelines in the same study population. KDIGO guideline might help in early detection and proper classification of CKD which will illicit stage-specific treatment.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Chronic kidney disease, Estimated glomerular filtration rate, Albuminuria