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Baseline characteristics and treatment pattern of type 2 diabetes patients in Jordan: analysis from the DISCOVER patient population

Jihad A. Haddad
Muwafaq A. Al Hyari
Monther S. Al Momani
Ahmad A. Al Omari
Fawaz L. Ammari
Firas O. Annabi


Introduction: Jordan has limited published data on T2DM and its treatment patterns. This analysis of the DISCOVER study, focusing on Jordan, is aimed at describing the characteristics of patients and treatment patterns according to the real-world setting in T2DM patients initiating a second-line antidiabetic treatment

Methods: The DISCOVER study is an ongoing, multi-country, multicenter, observational, prospective, and longitudinal cohort study. The baseline data of patients’ characteristics, clinical and laboratory variables, micro- and macro-complications, and treatment choices were captured on a standardized case report form.

Results: Two hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled from 13 different clinical sites in Jordan. Sixty percent of the patients were male. The participants overall mean age was 53.8 ± 11.3 years with a mean BMI 30.8 ± 5.0 kg/m 2. The mean duration of T2DM was almost 6 years and the mean documented HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose were e 8.4% ± 1.6 and 180.9 ± 63.7 mg/dL, respectively, at the initiation of second-line antidiabetic treatment. Almost 25% of the participants were reported to be either current smokers or ex-smokers. More than 40% of patients had comorbidities such as hypertension or dyslipidemia. Diabetes related microvascular and macrovascular complications were documented in 10.3% and 12.5% of patients, respectively. Metformin (MET) alone was used as a first-line therapy in almost one-half of the patients and in combination with sulfonylurea (SU) in approximately one-third of the patients. The most commonly used second-line therapy was the combination of MET and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) with 29.9% followed by the triple therapy of MET, SU, and DPP-4i with 28%.

Conclusion: A substantial number of patients were young with uncontrolled diabetes and at high risk for micro- and macrovascular complications. Therefore, a comprehensive management with early treatment intensification and risk factors modifications are required to achieve target goals.