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Activation of liver X receptors ameliorates alterations in testicular function in rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation

Nevertyty Mohamed Mahmoud
Randa Salah Gomaa
Amal Elsayd Salem


Introduction: Cell phones are essential for modern life and their usage becomes prevalent. Worries have increased concerning the harmful effects of their radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that have important roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation, plus several recently emerging roles. Whether it is useful to overcome the hazardous effects of cell phone radiation needs to be
clarified. So, this study aimed to investigate the effect of LXRs activation on testicular changes in rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation.
Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were subdivided into control group, experimental group: exposed to cell phone electromagnetic radiation, and treated group: as experimental group and received LXRs agonist T0901317. Serum testosterone (T), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), and Luteinizing Hormone (LH), testicular tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and gene expressions of inflammatory and apoptotic markers were assessed. Seminal analysis and testicular histological examination were performed.
Results: LXRs activation in rats exposed to cell phone radiation improved the decreased testicular and gonadotrophic hormones, semen quality parameters, tissue SOD, and antiapoptotic gene expression as well as the elevated tissue MDA, apoptotic and inflammatory gene expressions, and the testicular histological changes induced by exposure to electromagnetic radiation.
Conclusion: Exposure to cell phone radiation leads to harmful effects on spermatogenesis and  LXRs activation could improve these effects via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties in addition to its endocrinal action.