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Spectrum and pattern of distribution of findings in patients with dyspepsia undergoing oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy at a Tertiary Hospital in Ibadan, south west, Nigeria

Kolawole Oluseyi Akande
Temitope Olufemi Oke
Oludolapo Afuwape
Tinuola Abiodun Adigun
Adegboyega Akere
Ajibola Aje
Samuel Olawale Ola
Jesse Abiodun Otegbayo


Introduction: Dyspepsia is a symptom complex with varied underlying etiologies. The underlying etiology determines the precise treatment and prognosis though Helicobacter pylori infection plays a central role. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum and pattern of distribution of findings in patients with dyspepsia undergoing oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy at the University College Hospital, Ibadan.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of computerized database patients with dyspepsia who underwent oesophago-gastro–duodenoscopy from 2015 to 2019.
Results: A total of 1,373 procedures were done and dyspepsia was the indication in 736 (53.2%) comprising 317 (43.1%) male and 405 (55%) female (P< .001). The age ranged from 18 to 100 with a mean of 50 ± 15 years. The age group 40–59 years had the highest representation (P = .00). The esophageal mucosa was normal in 592 (80.4%) while 45 (6.1%) and 36 (4.9%) patients had esophagitis and esophageal candidiasis, respectively. In the stomach, 230 (31%) patients had normal mucosa while 433 (57.5%) and 40 (5.4%) patients had gastritis and gastric ulcers, respectively. Antrum was the most commonly involved site by the gastritis and ulcers in 236 (55.8%) and 24 (60%) patients, respectively. The mean age of those with non-ulcer dyspepsia was 49.8 ± 15 while that of those with organic dyspepsia was 55.7 ± 13.7 years (P= .01). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the age group and organic dyspepsia (P = .00). The first part of the duodenum was normal in 594 (80.7%) while bulbar duodenitis was seen in 106 (14.4%).
Conclusion: In our practice, OGD in patients with dyspepsia is either normal or yielded few abnormalities. The most common abnormalities were gastritis, duodenitis, esophagitis and gastric ulcers. Gastritis and ulcers were antral predominant and gastric ulcers were more common than duodenal ulcers. There was a significant relationship between increasing age and organic dyspepsia.