Main Article Content

Immunodysregulation in anthrax infection in Nigeria: A systematic review


M.F. Olaniyan
M.A. Muhibi
T.B. Olaniyan

Abstract

Background: Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, requires comprehensive analysis to understand immunodysregulation for effective therapeutic interventions.


Aim: This work was designed to conduct a systematic review immunodysregulation in anthrax infection in Nigeria


Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using specific keywords and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Selected  studies underwent data extraction, synthesis, and analysis. A comprehensive literature search included databases such as  PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Nature, Web of Science, and Scopus. The search strategy combined keywords like "anthrax infection,"  "Bacillus anthracis," "Immunodysregulation," "immune response," and "toxins" using Boolean operators and MeSH terms for  inclusiveness. Quality assessment and ethical considerations were also addressed.


Results: Based on the review, it was discovered that,  the first case of anthrax disease in animals in Nigeria was confirmed in Niger State, on the 17th July, 2023. The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in Nigeria confirmed the first case of anthrax disease in animals in Niger State, Nigeria on the 17th  July, 2023 through a laboratory tests by the National Veterinary Research Institute laboratory. Effective prevention and management of  anthrax in Nigeria necessitates vaccination campaigns, surveillance systems, and public health education. Challenges like limited  veterinary services and healthcare professional awareness require collaboration. Bacillus anthracis poses a threat to human health,  emphasizing the importance of vaccination, education, meat inspection, hygiene, and timely treatment. The pathogen disrupts the host  immune system through various mechanisms, including capsule formation, toxin production, and immune evasion.  Immunodysregulation contributes to anthrax's severity and mortality rates, allowing the bacteria to evade immune responses.  Understanding these mechanisms through bioinformatics and network-based approaches can identify therapeutic targets and  intervention strategies.


Conclusion: This research highlights the importance of comprehending immunodysregulation in Bacillus  anthracis-induced anthrax for effective therapies. The systematic review focused on the Nigerian context, conducting a rigorous literature  search across databases. On July 17, 2023, the Federal Ministry of Agriculture confirmed Nigeria's first animal anthrax case in  Niger State, emphasizing the need for vaccination campaigns, surveillance, and health education. The study also revealed how Bacillus  anthracis disrupts the host immune system, leading to severe outcomes and evading immune responses. Understanding these  mechanisms through bioinformatics can inform therapeutic interventions, stressing the significance of proactive measures and  collaboration in public health. Ongoing research and collaboration are crucial for