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Presence of CDRI efflux gene among multi-drug resistant <i>Candida albicans</i> from clinical isolates in Benin City, Nigeria


O.E. Oladugba
H.O. Ogefere
R. Omoregie

Abstract

Background: Candida albicans are the most common cause of yeast infections worldwide. They are known to cause opportunistic  infections being able to colonise the vaginal area, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract when theimmune system is compromised.  The antimicrobials of choice for the treatment of yeast infections are antifungal agents. Most of these antifungal agents have developed  resistance over the years due to inappropriate use.


Aim: This study was done to determine the presence of CDR1 genes in Benin City Nigeria.


Methods: A total of 161 consecutive non- repetitive clinical isolates of Candia albicans were used in this study. A disc susceptibility test was performed on all isolates with fluconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin.


Results: Isolates resistant to two or more agents were used for molecular studies  to detect CDR1 genes. Fluconazole (42.85%) ketoconazole (34.78%), Amphotericin B and nystatin (0.62% each) were not active  against Candida albicans. Eighty percent (80%) (32/40) of representative Candida albicans harbored CDR1 gene. The distribution of the  CDR1 gene was not affected by gender, age, specimen type and source of patients (P<0.005).


Conclusion:The resistance to fluconazole  was prevalent in this study, Eighty percent of the reprentative Candida isolates haboured the CDR1 genes.