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Occurrence of <i>Gardnerella vaginalis</i> among patients diagnosed of bacterial vaginosis in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Zaria-Nigeria


B. Abdullahi
S.I. Khalid

Abstract

Background: Bacterial vaginosis is the condition that occurs when the balance of the vaginal flora is distorted, and replaced by a high  concentration of harmful bacteria. Such harmful bacteria are Gardnerella vaginalis and Mycoplasma species.


Aim: The aim of this study  was to detect bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female patients presenting with suspected cases of vaginitis in Ahmadu Bello University  Teaching Hospital, Shika, Zaria, determine the occurrence of the implicating Gardnerella vaginalis and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern.  


Methods: One hundred high vaginal swab (HVS) samples of patients presenting with vaginitis in Ahmadu Bello University  Teaching Hospital, Shika, Zaria-Nigeria were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV) using Amsel’s criteria. Samples positive for BV were  subjected to cultural test to isolate Gardnerella vaginalis. The isolates were identified using biochemical test and subjected to antibiotic  susceptibility using Agar disc diffusion method. The socio-demographic and risk factors associated with the infection were also  determined using structural questionnaire.


Results: Fifty-two percent prevalence of BV was recorded among the consented patients. The  overall occurrence of Gardnerella vaginalis among BV patients was 15.4%. The highest occurrence of Gardnerella vaginalis (50%) was  recorded against ≥51years age group, while age group 21-30years had the lowest occurrence rate (8.7%). However, there was no  association between the infection and age groups (p>0.05). There was no significant association between level of education and the  infection, despite highest occurrence (50%) recorded among non-educated patients. There was high occurrence among the business  women (26.7%) compared to house wives (0.0%). Also, there was no significant association between risk factors and the occurrence of  Gardnerella vaginalis (P>0.05). Patients that have had cases of miscarriage had the highest occurrence of Gardnerella vaginalis (22.2%)  compared to those that do not have miscarriage (14.0%). No Gardnerella vaginalis infection recorded against patients that use condom  (0.0%). In relation to Gardnerella vaginalis infection and symptoms, there was no significant association. The isolates were 100%, 87.5%  and 75.0% susceptible to Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin and Levofloxacin respectively. However, they were 100% resistant to ampicillin. Fifty  percent of the isolates were multi-drug resistant.


Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis was detected among patients presenting with vaginitis and Gardnerella vaginalis was implicated in some cases. It proper diagnosis and prompt treatment is important in preventing pregnancy  complications and infertility.