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Isolation, identification and antibiotics susceptibility patterns of <i>Vibrio cholera</i> from diarrhoeic patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Medical Centre, Samaru, Zaria-Nigeria


B. Abdullahi
H.E. Ebele

Abstract

Background: Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Antibiotic resistance among Vibrio cholerae has the potential to pose a serious threat to public health since it could increase the prevalence of cholera.


Aim: This study was aimed at isolating, identifying and determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae from diarrhoeic  patients in Ahmadu Bello University Medical Center, Zaria-Nigeria.


Methods: Culture and biochemical tests were employed in isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae from 100 stool samples. Structural  questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic and risk factors associated with Vibrio cholerae.


Results: The prevalence of Vibrio cholerae was 16%. The prevalence of Vibrio cholerae among female patients was 17%, while that of  male patients was 15.1%. Also, Vibrio cholerae infection was not associated with gender (p>0.05). Age group 2-15 years had more Vibrio  cholerae infection (37.5%) than other age groups. There was a significant association between Vibrio cholerae infection and age group  (p<0.05). Vibrio cholerae infection was associated with education (p<0.05), with highest rate of infection among secondary patients  (33.3%). There was no significant association between Vibrio cholerae and occupation (p>0.05), even though civil servants having the  highest rate of infection (33.3%). Patients who used bottled water had the highest rate of Vibrio cholerae infection (25%). Vibrio cholerae  isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin (75%) and ceftriaxone (68.8%). However, they were 62.5% susceptible to each of gentamicin  and levofloxacin. Among the isolated Vibrio cholerae 68.8% of them were multi-drug resistant.


Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Ahmadu Bello University and the surrounding area have a high prevalence of Vibrio cholerae infection. As a result, it's important to inform the locals about the need to enhance their hygiene. Gentamicin and levofloxacin are found to be drugs of choice in this study.