Comparative Study of the Cervical Cytopathological Changes Among Intrauterine Device and Injectable Contraceptive Users at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano

  • J.M. Ibrahim
  • Z.D. Ahmed
  • T.A. Atanda
  • A. Rabiu


Background: The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a commonly used method of birth control that requires minimal skill and does not interfere with fertility once removed. It has been reported to produce inflammation and cervical cytopathology which can result in premalignant changes.

Objective: To determine the cytopathological changes among copper-containing IUCD and injectable contraceptive users at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital.

Method: This was a comparative cross-sectional study, of two groups of 140 consenting women using the copper T IUCD and another 140 using the injectable contraceptive who came for follow-up after four weeks of insertion at the family planning clinic over a period of 10 weeks. A structured questionnaire was administered and information on socio-demographic data and contraceptive behaviour were obtained. A Pap smear was taken from the two groups and reported according to the Bethesda system.

Results: A negative smear with inflammation was found among 60(43.5%) women using the IUCD, compared to 31(22.8%) using the injectable contraceptive. Also, negative smear without inflammation was found in 76(55.1%) of the women on IUCD compared with 105(77.2%) on injectable contraceptives (p-value 0.012). Only 2(1.5%) of the women on the IUCD had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, but none in the other group. Parity and duration of use for each of the methods had no statistically significant association with cytological findings in each of the groups (p-value 0.533 and 0.495 for parity and duration respectively). However, marital status had a statistically significant association with inflammatory changes (p-value< 0.001).

Conclusion: There were more inflammatory cytological changes among women using IUCD compared with those using the injectables.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2437-1734
print ISSN: 0189-9422