Efficacy of Some Leaf Extracts on Some Seed Borne Fungi of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hochest Ex. A. Rich)
The antifungal effect of ethanol leaf extracts of five plants, (viz. Jatrohpa curcas L, Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) seem. Ex Bureau, Ficus exasperate Vahl, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) and Cassia alata L.) Seed plus 30 wettable solvent (WS) and Water on some Seed borne fungi: Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporium of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seeds was studied in vitro using agar plate method of isolation. The efficacy of the treatments was tested separately on the individual fungal
isolates. All the plant extracts except Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) seem. Ex Bureau, significantly (P > 0.05) inhibited the radial hyphal growth of Aspergillus niger. Jatropha curcas L extract gave the highest inhibition at all levels of concentrations while Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) was the least. The positive control; Seed plus 30 wettable solvent (WS) inhibited the growth of A. niger significantly (P > 0.05) while water had no inhibition on the growth of the fungus. On the other hand, Jatropha curcas L., Cassia alata L. and Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) extracts had inhibitory effects on the hyphal growth of Fusarium oxysporium while Newboudia laevis (P. Beauv.) seem. Ex Bureau and Ficus exasperate Vahl. extracts showed no inhibition on the growth of the fungus at all levels of concentrations. Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) extract was the most effective while Cassia alata L. extract was the least in the inhibitory efficacy. The positive and negative controls; Seed plus 30WS and Water respectively recorded no significant inhibition on the hyphal growth of Fusarium oxysporium. The ethanolic leaf extracts of Jatopha curcas L., Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.), and Cassia alata L. which are very cheap and environmentally safe were proved promising for protecting African yam bean seeds against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporium.
Keywords: Leaf Extract, Hyphal Growth, Seed Borne Fungi, African yam bean
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