Effect of Paraquat Herbicide on Oxidative Stress Biomaker Enzyme Activities in C. Gariepinus

  • S. A Nafi’u
  • K. Suleiman
  • M. K Ahmad
  • M Zakariyya
Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Lethal concentration, Oxidative Stress enzymes, Paraquat, Toxicity assessment

Abstract

Toxicity assessment was conducted for 96hr exposure duration using synthetic herbicide (paraquat dichloride 276g/L) on Claris gariepinus with mean weight range of 27.2 - 29.7g and mean length 10.95 -15.5cm. They were exposed to varying herbicide concentrations of 0.0, 3.45, 6.90, 10.35 and 13.5mg/L with 5-levels exposure concentrations in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Liver, gills and kidney tissues were analyzed for oxidative stress enzymes activities using Solarbio science assay kit (BC1170, 0170 and 0020). Four days lethal concentration (LC50) value for 96hr was found to be 7.298mg/L. The treated fish displayed erratic swimming with irregular opercular movement, loss of reflex, mucus secretion and increased air gulping with the increasing concentration of the herbicide compared with the control fish. Antioxidant biomarkers activities revealed that Glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities increased significantly (P<0.05) in the gills, liver and kidney tissues at higher concentrations compared with control. It can be deduced that alterations in the oxidative stress enzyme activities in the exposed fish to paraquat exert toxic effect on the liver, gills and kidney tissues. It is therefore recommended that appropriate authorities should develop strategies on minimizing the indiscriminate use of synthetic herbicides due to their impact on aquatic biota such as fish in order to reduce its potential risk to other non-target organisms.

Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Lethal concentration, Oxidative Stress enzymes, Paraquat, Toxicity assessment

Published
2022-01-06
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 2635-3490
print ISSN: 2476-8316