Synthesis and Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Potentials of Chitosan Combinations with Metformin and Momordica Balsamina Leaf Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Chitosan, a carbohydrate biopolymer, is medically gaining attention as a dietary supplement and a drug beneficial for improving blood glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance and altered lipid metabolism. Largely obtained from crustaceans, chitosan is also a promising vehicle used to deliver anti-diabetic drugs in implantable as well as injectable and oral routes. The present study is therefore aimed to synthesize chitosan and evaluate its antidiabetic potentials in combination with metformin and/or methanolic leaf extract of Momordica balsamina (MBM) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Chitosan was synthesized from crayfish shell through demineralization, deproteinization, deacetylation, and decolouration of the produced chitin. In the present study, a simple and an inexpensive acid-base titrimetric method was used for the determination of degree of deacetylation while the physicochemical properties; moisture content and ash content were determined using standard procedures.The efficacy of the drug binary systems of chitosan-metformin and chitosan-MBM were evaluated on the glucose tolerance of Wistar Albino rats made diabetic by a single interperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight). The oral administration of both drug binary systems and chitosan exerted a significant (p<0.05) improvement on carbohydrate metabolism via glucose tolerance test when compared to the untreated diabetic rats. The blood glucose level of the chitosan group returned to near normal level 2 hours post-porandially, while chitosan-MBM, chitosanmetformin and metformin groups returned to their initial values only after 4 hours. Our findings are suggestive of the fact that chitosan-based drug binary systems possess anti-hyperglycemic activities and thus the potential to improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacological profile of oral hypoglycemic drugs/herbs. Our findings could serve as basis for the development of novel antidiabetic drug systems.
Keywords: Antidiabetic, Chitosan, Metformin, Methanolic extract, Momordica balsamina
The Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse. Jigawa State, Nigeria.