Trypanocidal drug utilization practices in tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas of South Omo Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia
Trypanosomosis control in Ethiopia is largely rely on use of available trypanocidal drugs although there are other options such as vector control and use of trypanotolerant hosts. A cross-sectional survey aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of trypanocidal drug utilization and constraints of trypanosome infection conducted in tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia. The questionnaire based survey was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the field data obtained from 184 cattle owners. Sixty (60) of the cattle owners were from suppression area and 124 from tsetse non-suppression area. Accordingly, draft oxen and milking cows respectively from tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas were classes of animals which were given priority in trypanocidal drug treatment. About 79.03% and 81.7% of cattle owners respectively from tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas witnessed
that they treat their sick animals by themselves; indicating that veterinarians and other animal health experts have very little role in medication of sick animals. Diminazine aceturate (DA) was the main trypanocidal drug preferred by cattle owners in tsetse suppression area while both DA and Isometamidium chloride (ISM) were used in non-suppression areas. About 83.1% of the respondents from tsetse suppression areas and 86.7% from non-suppression area reported treatment failures following the use of trypanocidal drugs. Moreover, about 79.61% and 86.53% of respondents respectively from tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas observed that drugs obtained from private drug stores were less effective compared to drugs obtained from governmental veterinary clinics. Furthermore, the respondents disclosed that DA was the most horrible trypanocidal drug in showing treatment failures despite high preference by cattle owners. It was also noted that treatment frequency was higher
in tsetse suppression areas than non-suppression areas regardless of vector suppression campaign. In conclusion, higher dependency of cattle owners on trypanocidal drugs, limited trypanocidal drug availability in the veterinary pharmaceutical market, frequent trypanocidal drug usage and injection by unskilled herdsmen and owners report on trypanocidal drug treatment failures may point out the issue of trypanocidal drug resistance in the area. Therefore, awareness creation to livestock owners on the effect of misuse of trypanocidal drugs and safe trypanocidal drug usage policy should be put into effect to uphold the effectiveness of currently available trypanocidal drugs.
Keywords: Trypanosomosis; Trypanocidal Drugs; Tsetse suppression; South Omo Zone; Ethiopia