Uptake of cancer screening among women and men in Ecuador: Prevalence and associated factors in 2018
The aim of the study was to assess the uptake of cancer screening among men and women in Ecuador. In a national cross-sectional survey in 2018, 1944 (41.9%) men, and 2694 (58.1%) women responded to questions on cervical cancer screening, mammography, breast examination (BE), faecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy, and prostate examination. The results indicate that the prevalence of ever pap smear cervical cancer screening among women aged 21-65 years was 62.6%, past year BE among women aged 50-69 years was 21.6%, and past 2 years mammography screening among women aged 50-69 years was 23.8%. Among women aged 50-69 years, 25.3% ever had an FOBT and 13.9% ever had colonoscopy. Among men aged 50-69 years, 22.6% ever had an FOBT, 10.9% ever had colonoscopy, and 41.7% ever had a prostate examination. In the adjusted logistic regression, older age, blood pressure, and cholesterol screening, visit to a health worker in the past 12 months, and overweight were positively and having often or always salt, being Amerindian or Indigenous by ethnicity, and having underweight were negatively associated with ever cervical cancer screening. Older age, secondary or higher education, glucose screening, health care worker visits in the past 12 months, and past smoking were positively and being Montubio by ethnicity and binge drinking were negatively associated with ever prostate examination. We found a low uptake cancer screening, and identified several associated factors which may help in designing cancer screening programmes in Ecuador.