How, what, when and where? A systemic review on dynamics of human trafficking, irregular migration and modern day slavery in Nigeria
Human trafficking and irregular migration have become the largest manifestations of modern-day slavery which involves the illegal trade of people for exploitation or commercial gain. Nigeria has been named one of the top eight of the 161 countries in the world identified as being a source, transit, or destination country for victims of human trafficking, and the leading African country with substantial cross-border and internal trafficking. Using a systemic review technique, we search different databases in English language for relevant literature published between 2000 and 2019 that address various dynamics of human trafficking, irregular migration and modern-day slavery in Nigeria. Findings revealed that the victims of human trafficking/irregular migration/modern-day slavery are either coerced or are recruited through their own voluntary cooperation with their assailants. Specifically, the recruitment process often begins with seduction, cajolement and oath taken, through which they voluntarily cooperate with the assailants, who are usually people they know closely such as friend or family member, who often play major roles in the trafficking trajectories of victims, usually for their own profit. Considering the clandestine nature of operation and attendant negative consequences surrounding these phenomena, more research is needed to better understand the complexity surrounding the menace of human trafficking/irregular migration/modern-day slavery in the country. Furthermore, state and non-state actors need to put in more aggressive measures to stem and eradicate these phenomena in Nigeria.